Vsauce! Kevin here. The Colorado potato beetle, first observed

innocently eating native plants in the Rocky Mountains in 1811, went crazy when potatoes,

native to South America, were introduced to the U.S. These beetles were like, “Wow potatoes are

delicious” The beetles were right. But their potato-hunger is so devastating

to crops, entire propaganda campaigns were launched in World War II and again during

The Cold War claiming that the CIA was dropping the “American Bug” in places like Germany

and Eastern Europe as a form of insect warfare. The Colorado potato beetle has been a major

potato problem. But potatoes have never been paradoxical,

right? Wrong. ENTER: THE POTATO PARADOX. It goes like this: say you’ve got 100 pounds

of potatoes and 99% of their weight is water. The other 1% of their weight is solid potato

stuff — starches, proteins, pectins, minerals, that kind of stuff. You leave them out overnight and they dry

out a little bit. When you wake up, they’re only 98% water,

that would make 2% of it solid. So, how much does your sack of spuds weigh

now? While you think about it, let’s get real for

a second with real potatoes, not paradoxical ones. So, real potatoes are 79% water by weight. So I cut this to exactly 100 grams, which

means this 79 grams of water. Looks thirst quenching. 79% is a lot, but we can go higher. Per 100 grams, Watermelon is 91% water. But what’s more water than watermelon? Lettuce. Lettuce is almost 95% water. Meaning, salad is 5% away from being soup. Back to our paradox… probably a good idea

to get back to that. Probably broke the scale. Anyway, we have 100 pounds of paradox potatoes,

and the percentage of water weight goes down by 1% overnight so their weight today would

be 99 pounds. A common answer. And a good one. If by “good” you mean… After this tiny change, your sack of spuds

would actually weigh 50 pounds. The 1% shift in composition cuts its weight

in HALF. How? Well, the easiest way to visualize the solution

is with potatoes. 100 of them. OHHHH NO NO… So here are 100 potatoes. You must hug your potatoes so that they know

that you care. This one painted potato, a lovely space age

silver, is the 1% of solid potato matter that we start with. The other 99 represent the water. When the potatoes dry out, the amount of solid

matter doesn’t change. Only the water goes away. So, if we remove ONE unit of water we now

have 99 pounds of stuff, 1 of which is dry, 98 of which are water. So, let’s just do a little calculation here. 98 out of 99 is 98%… but .989899. We don’t want all those point 9 things,

we just want 98 percent. Okay, so that’s too much water. Let’s just remove another water, alright,

so now we have 97 out of the 98 pounds here are water. So, we’ll do 97 out of 98 and… 98.979591836%. That’s too much. It’s just too much water. There’s got to be a better way. Here’s the problem: This is lowering really

slowly because for every unit of water that dries away, the total amount that’s left ALSO

goes down. To see how many we need to take away, let’s

look at the final result. Excuse me, potatoes. Okay, here’s what we’ve got going on here. Okay, so. We need to reduce how much water we have not

to 98 or 97… but to 49. And here’s why: So we have 98%, 2% solid, but we only have

1 solid unit. So let’s turn that 2 into a 1. So, we’ll divide 2 by 2 and we get 1. So we’ve got to do the same thing now to

our 98, so we’ll divide 98 by 2 and that equals 49. So 49 plus 1 equals 50, and 50 pounds is the

answer. So, we’ve got to get rid of SO MANY water

potatoes. I don’t know how many are left, but it should

be 49 waters and 1 solid. And 49 divided by 50 is exactly 98%. We did it! That’s the answer. The potato paradox comes into play every time

there are two items and the concentration of one doubles. That requires the other one’s size to be

reduced by half of the whole, whether it’s doubling from 1% or .00001%. Or 10%. Ask your friends to solve this problem and

see what they say. Most of the time, our first response is to

assume that not much has changed since 1% is so small. This isn’t something to be ashamed of — our

brains evolved to compare quantities like this: there’s one wooly mammoth and there’s

five of us. Or, how much food do we need to keep the family

surviving through the winter? Evaluating concentrations is more abstract

and not usually a life-or-death issue that natural selection would play a role in shaping. Unlike other famous paradoxes, time travel

ones for example, the POTATO paradox is a VERIDICAL paradox, which means it has a TRUE

solution we can all agree on and prove, but is nonetheless surprising. So, the potato paradox is a kind of paradox

not built on misunderstandings or impossibilities or speculation but instead, is one that really

teases out how the mind works. Now if you’ll excuse me, I have a vintage

potato toy to turn into a potato man before he loses 1% of his water composition and half

his weight. And as always – thanks for watching. The awesome potato paradox animation at the

beginning of this video was created by VFX wizard Eric Langlay using After Effects. If you want to learn how to do cool visual

effects, there are dozens of courses just on After Effects over at Skillshare. And they’re taught by experts who really

know what they’re doing, so you’ll really learn what you’re doing, whether you need

to know the basics — OH, LOOK OUT — or you just want to learn some new techniques. Which, I think we all can always use some

new techniques. An annual Skillshare subscription is less

than ten bucks a month and the first one thousand people to use the promo link at the top of

this video’s description will get their first two months for just 99 cents, which

is less than this potato cost me. And I would give this guy an arm… or a hand… I guess he has an arm, but the hand, it’s

broken. Listen, this thing is 60 years old. It’s amazing that it… ok, let’s see

if it… doesn’t. What if it stood… will this hold it? WILL THIS HOLD IT? IT HOLDS IT! The Potato Man lives and breathes in a potato

stand. I didn’t mean for that to rhyme, but it

did. Let’s look at this thing for a second. Mr. Potato Head Funny Face kit, this was the

original thing. And it really wasn’t just for potatoes,

you can see you can make peppers, beets, oranges, apples… OHHH NOOOOO! Really, it was all about turning vegetables

into people, which I think is something we can all get behind. *sigh* I have so much to clean up.

## Comments

Author

Go tell someone that salad is 5% away from being soup.

Author

Kevin: Excuse me, but do you know where I could find 100 potato

Store clerk: WTF

Author

Yeah let's go Colorado!

Author

I got it… When you get the math it's not hard.

Author

I got it… When you get the math it's not hard.

Author

1 water is exactly 100% water

Author

You are the most logic person i have ever seen but you did all that talking to explain a very simpler thing.

The potato weights 50 lbs for the simple fact that if before it was 100 and 1% was solid, but when dried the solid was 2% and considering that solid stays the same, the 2% of solid of the dried potato MUST weight as much as the solid of the watered one.

So if the solid was 1lb before, it will be 1lb after, and if 1lb is 2% well the total weight must be 50lbs

Author

Does anyone else get goose bumps from sharpy on paper?

Author

nobody:

vsauce2:potato paradox

Author

5:59 34*

Author

Who thinks it's gonna way only 1 pound less, this doesn't make ANY sense

Author

the original paradox is with a watermelon faker and a potato have less than 99% water

Author

“the beetles were right”

that was

veryominousAuthor

What's more water than watermelon?

"Water"

Author

How is that a paradox? I got it in less than a second after you asked.

Author

I felt violated when you didn't say 'Wrong' like you normally do

Author

You think your comment is right? Wrong!

Author

i weight 88 pounds

Author

Umm…I still don't get it. How does losing 1% water DOUBLE the amount of solid stuff?

Author

this video was sponsered by the irish

Author

I’m a paradox

Author

he was really trying to stretch it to 10 minutes at the end their

Author

Nobody:

Kevin:

There's got to be a better way.Author

But I want to turn people into vegetables.

Author

We are potatoes. Potatoes are 70% water and we are 70% water.

PrOvE mE wRoNg.

Author

tbh i already new this, you just gotta calculate with the % thats missing and not the one we're talking about

Author

You're watching a YouTube video right? WRONG.

Author

m8 this is about potatoes. I got an ad for AdVentere communist… which is about potatoes

Author

3:21 One potato, Two potatoes, Three potatoes, …

100.Author

My method is find the ratio between the solid and the water. The ratio of the solid to water at the start is 1:99, and in the end, it is 2:98. Since water remained the same, the ratio of 1:99 can be said as 2:198 since the 2 units are the same. Thus, the total units in the start is 200 and in the end, it is 100. Since 200 units is equal to 100 lbs, 1 unit is 0.5 lbs and 100 units is 50 lbs, which is the answer. It is simple math involving one unchanged value in ratios. (This is the method I had used to find the answer correctly)

Author

That space age silver potato really made him crack up and the fact that it made him crack up made me crack up

Author

Hang on, hang on – if i get lost in the desert and lose 1% of my water balance, i don't suddenly lose half my weight. I'm so confused… #probablythedehydration

Author

Potato paradox schmaradox. Turn em into fries and they’ll all disappear!

Author

Is it a shame if I tell you that I solved the paradox and came up with 50 lb in first couple minutes of the video!Author

It technically is still logically consistent and not a paradox.

Author

If 1% of the water dries up, wouldn’t you lose 1% of the total potato? When water evaporates, it becomes a gas, not a solid, so wouldn’t you just have 1% solid and 98% water?

Author

Actually I calculated it in few seconds and in easier way, before I see the answer in the video:

1% solid of 100 => solid = 1 lb

2% solid => total weight = 1 lb / 0.02 = 50 lb

easy

Author

Love a lil vsauce on ma spuds

Author

Why do you sound like Matthew Broderick?

Author

You just stood him up in the mutilated corpses of his fallen brothers.

Author

In the video you only remove water, but I think that's not realistic. If the water and the solid stuff were mixed perfectly, the percentage wouldn't change.

Author

2:48 what my cousin's did to my notebooks

Author

So I immediately thought that half the 99 lbs of water (49.5) has to evaporate leaving 50.5 lbs, not 50 even. Unfortunately, I was still "WRONG" as 1 / 50.5 is not 2%. Halving one side does not double the ratio of the other to remainder. Ah well.

Also. Guys. I'm like 70% soup.

Author

*36 (oops)

Author

Was I the only one who thought that a Serious Vsause 4 Existed?

Author

The grandfather paradox

The laier's paradox

The birthday paradox

The potato paradox

This is getting ridicules next thing will be something like the toothbrush paradox

Author

There were 31 water potatoes left

Author

This was such a random video!

😂

Author

3:08 is it just me or did he have a voice crack

Author

3:08 funny voice crack XD

Author

This isn't even close to a paradox

Author

but at no point does the solid become 2% of the whole, it would be 1.010101010101010101010101010101010101……. of the whole after removing 1% of water

Author

I can sprint on water at 75mph but i need a really good boat.

Author

0:15 VOicE CRAck

Author

Fun fact Squirrels eat potatoes

Author

When mashed, potatoes seem to resemble Stephen Hawking.

Author

"You want ants? This is how you get ants."

Author

"You must hug your potatoes so that they know that you care." — Kevin, 2018

Author

100lb of potatoes is the 100% where, 99% (99lb) is water, 1%(1lb) solid. Now, 1% (1lb) of water is lost, so, 99lb potatoes is the new 100% where, 99% out of 99lb (98lb) is water and 1% (1lb) solid (which stays the same because only water was lost). That = 99lbs which checks. It’s not a “potato paradox” it is a miscalculation. Heat the potatoes in an oven to evaporate the 1% of water and weight them, then will see whos wrong. I dare you.

Author

😀

Author

remove another water

Author

To every genius here that says this is totally easy and not a mindfuck.

Calculations are wrong, its not that simple , its not so obvious before results that 1 lbs potato equals 2% of the total, since when you remove 1% of water you remove a part from the original composition not just water. So if you have 99lbs of water and 1 lbs of potato and remove one lbs water (which should logically be 1% of the whole), youd have 98 lbs of water and 1 lbs of potato, making it a total of 99 lbs. 1 lbs of 99 lbs doesnt sum up to your "obvious" calculations of 2% , so to reach a 2% composition you have ro remove a lot more lbs of water, the brain is fooled because 1% seems to be equal to 1 lbs, but its not, its equal to 49 in reality.So it is a paradox, and as he said a veridical one.Concentration and ratios work out strange in reality, the mindfuck is not because there are 2 answers as in a traditional paradox as superposition, its because there is an answer, it just plays out so weirdly in reality and when you put traditional logic in it.

Author

I dnt believe this

Author

I thought how many potatoes but since he didn't say I went with 99 should I get credit for that…

Author

https://www.medicinenet.com/lymphedema/article.htm#lymphedema_facts

Author

https://www.google.com/search?q=retention&rlz=1C1NDCM_enUS859US859&oq=retention&aqs=chrome..69i57j0l5.2663j0j8&sourceid=chrome&ie=UTF-8

Author

https://www.curetoday.com/articles/lifestyle-tips-for-managing-lymphedema

Author

Reduce salt intake. Salt promotes fluid retention. There are no official guidelines for avoiding salt for lymphedema, however people who are sensitive to salt might exacerbate their symptoms if they eat high-sodium foods. Current recommendations for salt intake are less than 2,300 mg for healthy individuals and less than 1,500 mg for people who have cardiac disease, diabetes and kidney disease.

Author

ho is Japanese , it means retention

Author

This is not a paradox. If you find this "paradox" fascinating u r probably dumb af

Author

U.s. potatoes look weird

Greetings from the Netherlands

Author

slowly eats potato chipsAuthor

but isn’t the idea of a veridical paradox paradoxical within itself because paradoxes don’t have an answer yet this kinda of question with no answer has an answer: BOOM paradox

Author

Who is this guy? I am not compelled at all to listen to him?

Author

10K dislikes is a bit too much.

Author

Author

Why does he look like Jim Moriarty from Sherlock?

Author

An Irish beetle

Author

Now we know that the next Stranger Things season will be about potatoes

Author

can someone help me? he said the percentage of water goes down by 1. i get that. there’s a shift in percentage. but what if FROM THE PERCENTAGE of water 1% is removed. like it’s literally only 1% water less. but 1% out of 99 is 0.99 isn’t it? so it’d still be 1.99% more solid mass and by his method almost the same result. isn’t the mistake that 1% solid potato in 100lbs potato doesn’t has to be 1lb? i mean i refuse to believe that just because 1% of water is removed (no matter if it’s 1% LESS water from the total or 1% OF total water in the potato) the mass of the potato halves. i’ve never felt more off reality… pls help

Author

what has more water than watermelon water

Author

I don’t get this at all. Why would you divide the solid by half

Author

Amikäfer xD

Author

The paradox that's only a paradox if you never went to middle school

Author

Is that a sharpy???

Author

OK. So it's not a physical paradox (impossible) but a language paradox, sneaking in the 2% solid, which must mathematically mean the potatoes must weigh half to accord with the double percentage of solid. A bit like a car salesman's guarantee…"Up to 100 mpg…" A linguistic, not a math problem.

Author

0:58

That music =

50% Stranger Things Intro + 50% ElectrodynamixAuthor

7,8/10 TOO MUCH WATERAuthor

Jesus could walk on water,

Babies are 85% water,

I can walk on babies,

I am

in prison.

Author

Very long winded. Far simpler to just point out that that the 1lb of solid now represents one fiftieth of the total so the total is fifty. Why all the extra unnecessary arithmetic?

Author

Beetles were right

Author

Your shirt is a paradox, no joke

Author

Is Kevin always like this? He seems a little strung out

Author

Now if this guy can get rid of 99% of his lesbian look…

Author

Wrong. If 50% of the water is 50% of the weight, then 100% of the water is 100% of the weight. That means that the solid contains no mass, and doesn't exist. Therefore, the paradox potatoes are soup.

Author

Kevin makes better content then micheal

Author

Me: I like potato soup more then salad

Kevin:

WRONG!Author

You must hug your potatoes…… So they know you care…………

Author

im already braindead by taht question at 1:28

Author

i have learned a lot