The Ebola Virus Explained — How Your Body Fights For Survival

The Ebola Virus Explained — How Your Body Fights For Survival


What makes Ebola so dangerous? How can a virus overwhelm the very complex defense system of the body so quickly and so effectively? Let’s take a look at what Ebola does. (Theme music) Ebola is a virus. A virus is a very small thing. A bit of RNA or DNA and a few proteins and a hull. It has no ability to do anything by itself whatsoever, and can only survive and proliferate by infecting cells. To avoid this we have the immune system. The immune system is super complex so we develop a visual system that makes it easy to understand. So it looks like this: Let’s concentrate on the part that is critical to understanding Ebola and ignore the rest. So usually dendritic cells will activate the army of anti-virus cells, support cells and anti-body factories that work together with the guard cells wipe out the infection in a matter of days. But when Ebola strikes, it directly attacks the immune system. Some of the first cells it takes over are the dendritic cells, the brains of the immune system. The Ebola virus enters a dendritic cell by binding into receptors for cell transport. Once it is inside, it dissolves its outer hull and releases its genetic material, nucleoproteins and enzymes. In a nutshell it takes over the cell, disables the cells protective mechanisms and reprograms it. The cell now becomes a virus production machine and uses its resources to build Ebola viruses. Once the cell is saturated, it dissolves the cell membrane and millions of viruses are released into the tissue. The virus not only prevents the dendritic cells from activating the specialized and anti-virus forces, it manipulates them into sending signal proteins that tricks specialized cells into ending their own life’s prematurely. So the immune system is seriously disrupted and unable to react. When the virus rapidly multiplies, we’re talking billions, there are cells that should deal with infected cells, the natural killer cells, but they also get infected and just die before they can prevent the disease from spreading. At the same time Ebola infects the guard cells of the body macrophages and monocytes, not only managing to circumvent their defenses, it also manipulates some to signal to the cells make up the blood vessels telling into release fluid into the body Usually this makes sense, but in this case it just causes mayhem. All of the body’s neutrophils are activated awaken by the virus and the macrophages signals then are not very effective against viruses and should not be involve in this fight and begin to do lots of stuffs they shouldn’t do. The neutrophils signals to the blood vessels to release more fluid causing internal bleeding. Another area of the body Ebola attacks is the liver. The virus finds it very easy to enter the liver and it quickly starts killing loads of liver cells and causing organ failure and more internal bleeding. And all those things are going on at the same time. As the virus spreads, it’s like nukes exploding every where. One incident of this in one region will be problem enough But now is starting to happen everywhere at once. All the mechanisms of the immune system have evolve to handle infections work against you. And the virus continues to spread and spread. And finally begins to infect more and more body cells while the body desperately struggles to stay alive. In a desperate last effort to turn the tide the immune system launches a cytokine storm. A cytokine storm is an S.O.S signal that causes the immune system to launch all of its weapons, all at once in a desperate kamikaze attack. This hurts the virus but leaves behind tons of collateral damage, Especially in the blood vessels. Paradoxically the healthier the immune system, the more damage it can do to itself More and more fluid leaves the blood stream. Blood pours after every opening of the body. You become seriously dehydrated that just not now blood left to supply the organs with oxygen and cells begin to die. If you reach this point the chance of you dying is very high. Currently six out of ten infected die from Ebola. Wow! Ok. Ebola is nasty. So it’s time to panic, right? No, not even close. The severity of Ebola gets paper sold and YouTube videos shared so everybody is talking about Ebola. But currently the only way to get infected by Ebola is to come into contact with the body fluids of a person who shows symptoms Or from infected bat. So just don’t do that. Ebola has killed 5,000 people since June 2014. The common flu kills up to 500,000 people each year. Malaria causes up to one million each year. 3,000 people every single day. Ten children since this video started. So even if Ebola is terrible and scary, don’t let yourself be scared. The most infectious thing about Ebola is the media hype around it. You could learn a bit more about the immune system though Transcription made by Miriam Delgado Subtitles by the Amara .org community Revised by: Ace Ervite

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    shriramvenu

    Kurzgesagt the death statistics aren't apple to apple comparisons. You should have published estimated influenza and malaria deaths for the same time period as used to measure the Ebola deaths

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    wunmi X

    producers: so we have the perfect idea for the season finale of Cells at Work! It promises to have lots of action scenes and dramatic deaths….

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    Hillbillys Outcast

    Are we going to to ignore the fact that one of the news papers said- and I quote "White people affected NOW it's a problem." Like WTF was it not a problem before!

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    Erythro Violet

    If you survive, hopefully you develop a naturally acquired active immunity. Luckily, no one is crazy enough to check, though.

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    Kipper Klank

    Thank you so much for telling us about the "media hype" at the end

    people need to be aware of this social destruction of the 21st century

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    Harvey Lu

    Funny how immune cells get desperate and launch everything against the virus…

    Are humans cells???
    Mind blown!

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    Youtubehasaids

    Impressive. I'm now a fan of Ebola. It just needs a more effective transfer mechanism and it would be plague worthy.

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    Tathem Relag

    You have been
    visited by the
    Ebola-Chan of
    Pestilence &
    Death
    Excruciating pain and
    death will come to you
    unless you post an
    "I LOVE YOU EBOLA-CHAN!"
    in the comments below

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    Jill Oliver

    If c.b mode from splattoon2 was a way to kill vruises and other bad stuff
    Me: GET READY TO DIE BEC MY C.B SET IS OP

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    Kiefer Tuck

    Hey guys love your videos. I do have one critique on this one. Usually don’t like the media, but in this case they may be justified. If Ebola has the “ability” to cause fatalities that way be worth coverage. The probability that the world is wiped out by Ebola and the world is wiped out by malaria are much different and should favor Ebola. Ebola hasn’t killed much but has the ability to which warrants media attention. That being said it was probably still over hyped a little.

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    dangernoodle148

    What if there were cells loaded with virus killers specifically designed for kamikaze missions against infected cell. I imagine the suicide cell would lock onto infected cells on it's own and hit it with enough force to rupture both cells, spilling virus and antivirus out at once? That would be cool.

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    Masterr Laster

    I hear that those people that survive Ebola are now immune to the disease. We need to study those people and create a vaccine.

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    Joseph Halbohn

    For anyone interested in this disease or pathology in general, there’s an incredible book called “The Hot Zone” that I wholeheartedly recommend

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    O gato retardado / The retarded cat

    Germany: Ebola
    France: Immune System
    (War references)

    Immune System seeing this commentary: I'm a joke for u?

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    TheImmuneSystem

    Ebola: E. Bo. Las a virus which is tiiiny but still… big enough…. to even surviiiiiive.
    Immune System: To prevent that you have us to guard… the immune systeeeeeeeeeAAAAAm
    Let’s take a loook

    Dendritic Cells: come on noooow! Let’s fiiight! Shoot the guns!
    Helper T Cells: we will help!
    Killer T Cells: Kill there machines
    B Cells: with the hacking Y’s
    Ebola: not if we attack.. ohhh
    Take over the BRAAAINS!!! Prevent them from activating guns
    We do that by binding onto receptors.. for cell transport
    Then we are innnside… Ohhhh it’s like a nutshell. Red cell. Blood hell. Doom cell. Don’t tell. You felllllll
    AAAAAHHH
    Ebolaaaaaaaaaa
    It’s time for you to sufferrrrrr
    Molten Laaava
    T Cells: iiiiis there daaangerrrrrrr
    T Cells: ohhh well gooodbyeeee
    Ebola: no more weapooooons!
    Time for you to diiiie.
    Is there hope?
    Natural Killer Cells: lets do this together
    Ebola: oh no you don’t. Let it do it’s… thiiing…
    Macrophages and Monocytes: Iiiis there any hope for a cure.
    Ebola: come on now activate the blood wave
    It’s gonna be tasty. Oh…….
    DOOOOM
    EBOLAAAAAAA!!!!
    HATE HATE HATE HATE LOOOVE!!!
    Neutrophils: what to aaaattaaaack
    We will release more..
    Release morrre.
    Liver: oh noooooo hohoho
    Heart: brokeeeeen..
    Brain: Coooma..
    Stomach: the acid…. can’t kill theeeem
    Lungs: they can even survive mucous
    Intestines: And Enzymes….
    Immune System: here isssss our secret weapon. The Cytokine Stoooorm!
    Horrorrrrrr!
    HAHAAAAAAAA!
    Dendritic Cells: ACTIVATE!! THEM NOW!!
    Antibodies and CD1: WE ARE NOW EVERYWHEREEE…
    Macrophages: there are more of us! Theeeeen you
    Blood: AAAH NOOO THIS IS ALOT COME ON NOW……………

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    Mizore Shirayuki

    The bubonic plague would be a neat illness to do a video about. Partly because of the damage it did, and partly because of how much we helped it spread.

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    Jonathan Powell

    3:54 "Paradoxically, the healthier the immune system, the more damage it can do to itself." Y'know, bubonic plague kinda works like that. If the bacteria gets into your lungs, your own body essentially kills itself.

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    Graining Rice

    Uganda Knuckles needs da wae, and if you didn't tell him da wae, he will spit on you and those saliva that he spitted has thousands of ebola virus

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